One of the most common bacteria-borne vector-borne diseases is Lyme disease. The spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia mayonii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii are the ones responsible for Lyme borreliosis. Humans contract Lyme disease from biting infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) or deer ticks. The infection may spread and affect various body organs if it is not promptly and effectively treated.
Lyme disease symptoms in humans:
Skin lesions at the tick bite site are among the early signs of Lyme borreliosis, which later develop into large erythematous annular lesions. The circular, reddened skin lesion is also referred to as erythema migrans. Lyme disease can manifest clinically as an early localised disease, an early disseminated disease, or a late disease, depending on the stages of infection.
*Early localised infection: This stage lasts three to thirty days after insect exposure and is characterised by symptoms like fever, exhaustion, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, and erythema at the tick bite site.
*Early-stage disease: As a result of multi-system infection, the patient may experience more severe symptoms at this stage. It consists of carditis, meningitis, cranial nerve palsies, erythema migrants, and meningitis.
*Late disease: As the symptoms worsen, oligoarticular arthritis or, less frequently, monoarticular arthritis develops.
How to prevent Lyme disease?
"Prevention is better than cure" is a proverb that is known the world over. Avoiding tick bites is the best way to protect *yourself from Lyme disease. Here are some recommendations for avoiding Lyme disease.
*Avoid going for long hikes through the woods.
*Apply topical insect repellents to your skin and clothing.
*Use permethrin spray on your camping gear or clothing.
*Avoid walking through long grasses and bushes.